Islamic View On Organ Donation
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What is the Islamic view on organ donation before or after death?
This is permissible so long as the individual is not harming the live person who is donating. In the case of a dead person, even though there's no harm to the dead person, the person would want to make sure that this is done with the permission of either the deceased individual or the guardian of that individual or close relative. Or, in the case of where this matter can be transferred to the state to give a ruling on this. So long as the procedure is properly doing this and not misusing the cadaver in any way. As for the live person, the doctor needs to make sure that the live person will not be significantly harmed by taking this organ or tissue from the person. Our Muslim scholars say that it will be unethical to sell any organ. So, if somebody is doing this, it has to be something voluntarily given, not something given for a price. This does not prevent the donor from receiving gifts. Naturally, the family would be quite appreciative and might want to give some favours to the person who gave this donation, but it cannot be done for a price.
What about if the transplant results in a little bit of possible harm to the person? It's still for the good of the individual receiving the transplant - let's say a kidney transplant, for example.
This is where the harms and benefits would have to be weighed. If a person gets one kidney and can survive on the other one, he's helping another person who has no kidney. There was a story that a good Muslim donated his kidney to his brother who had no functioning kidney. As a result, they both went on to live a prolonged and happy life. So, it's possible.
One has to weigh the benefits and harms. For instance, how much would it harm the donor to give this donation? How much would it benefit the recipient to receive this?
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